CORE MATHEMATICS FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL PDF

MATHEMATICS FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS

 - 1.1 Counting and writing numbers In primary school you were introduced to the set of counting numbers. The members of this set are the numbers beginning with 1, with each successive number greater than its predecessor by 1. The set of counting numbers is denoted by N, that is N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, …}. These numbers serve as mathematical symbols used in counting and measuring. This set is also called the set of natural numbers, or the set of positive integers. Natural numbers is the most basic and familiar set of numbers. If we add the number zero to this set, we obtain the set W = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, …}.
This is referred to as the set of whole numbers. A notational symbol which represents a number is called a numeral. For instance, the numeral “5” is the notational symbol which represents the number “five” whilst “8” is used to represent the number “eight”. What numeral is used to represent the number “nine”? The number system, in universal use today for arithmetic operations is base ten number system. This means we use ten numbers or digits. The set of digits for base ten is {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}. This numeration system is also known as the denary or decimal system. In decimal numerals, we count in tens. For example; 56 in base ten (or in decimal numerals) means 5 tens and 6 ones. Place value Place value is an important concept that is often misunderstood and sometimes misplaced. The decimal system depends on place value. This means, the value of a digit varies depending on its position. For instance in 345, the number “4” stands for forty or 4 tens whilst in 453 the value of the number “4” is four hundred. In 534, the value of “4” is simply four since it is in the unit position. In 4 350, the value of 4 is four thousand since it is in thousands position. The numeral 82 537 has 5 digits.
This is read as “eighty two thousand, five hundred and thirty seven. These five digits represent number of ones, a number tens, the number of hundreds, a number thousands and a number ten thousands. Table 1.1 shows the place value and the value of the digits in the numeral 82 537. 

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